A History of the Training & Development Profession

224Compiled from Training & Development Magazine, May 1994 and other ASTD publications

1906: The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education is formed
1911: Frederick W. Taylor publishes The Principles of Scientific Management
1913: The first cars roll off the Ford Motor Company assembly line
1914-1918: World War I
1916: Henri Fayol declares that the work of mangers is to plan, organize,
coordinate, and control

1920s: Unions set up their first training programs for employees. Bell Labs
introduces TQM and statistical quality control
1924: Joseph Juran begins his work on managing quality
1927: The Hawthorne Experiments at Western Electric Plant in Cicero, IL, reveal
the influences of physical and psychological factors on productivity
1929: The stockmarket collapses, followed by the Great Depression

1931: Professor Erwin H. Schell initiates the MIT Executive Development
program — the first “away-from-company” program for executives
1933: The Wagner-Peyser Act creates the US Employment Service
1936: Dale Carnegie publishes How To Win Friends And Influence People
1938: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an executive order calling for the
government, as an employer, to provide training for its employees
1938: The first ballpoint pen is created

1940: The first train-the-trainer programs for supervisors are developed by the Training within Industry Service of the War Manpower Commission. Known as “J” programs, they cover job instruction training, job relations training, job methods training and job safety training
1942: Peter Drucker publishes his first book, _The Future of Industrial Man: A
Conservative Approach;_ the American Society of Training Directors (ASTD) is formed on April 2 at a meeting of the American Petroleum Institute, in New Orleans, LA. Fifteen training directors hold their first meeting on January 12, 1943, in Baton Rouge
1943: Abraham Maslow publishes A Theory of Human Motivation
1944: The GI Bill of Rights is signed, making grants and loans for college available to US military personnel
1945: ASTD publishes the first issue of Industrial Training News, a quarterly publication that is eventually to become Training & Development magazine
1946: Kurt Lewin first experiments with group dynamics at the Connecticut Interracial Commission
1947: National Training Laboratory conducts its first session in human relations training, also known as sensitivity training or T-group training; Industrial Training News changes its name to Journal of Industrial Training and becomes a bimonthly periodical
1948: The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), formerly called the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA), is founded by a group of just 28 individuals who anticipate the need for a national personnel organization

1950: American quality experts Joseph M. Juran and Edward Deming go to Japan as advisors on the reconstruction of Japanese industry
1951: ASTD opens its first permanent office, in Madison, WI, the hometown of Russell Moberly, the secretary-treasurer who keeps all the records at the time
1952: ASTD membership reaches 1,600. There are 32 ASTD chapters across the country
1953: Washington, DC, chapter of ASTD is chartered as an affiliate of National ASTD, headed by president J. Harvey Daly, Director for Personnel and Public Relations for Giant Foods; BF Skinner’s Science and Human Behavior is published, introducing the idea of behavior modification
1956: IBM opens the first residential executive development facility at Sands Point on Long Island
1959: ASTD’s Journal of Industrial Training changes its name to Training Directors Journal and publishes Donald L. Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluating training

1960: Douglas M. McGregor’s The Human Side of Enterprise is published, describing Theory X and Theory Y as opposing viewpoints of basic workplace relations and behaviors
1961: Sloan Management Review publishes Edgar H. Schein’s Management Development as a Process of Influence. ASTD begins publication of Training Research Abstracts, later incorporated in Training & Development Journal
1962: Congress votes into law the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA); the National Society for Performance and Instruction is formed; the National Testing Service publishes the Myers-Briggs psychological type indicator
1964: ASTD changes its name to the American Society for Training and Development; Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton publish The Managerial Grid
1966: Training Director Journal changes its name to Training & Development Journal
1967: McGraw-Hill publishes the first edition of _Training and Development
1968: ASTD membership reaches 7,422, with 65 chapters

1970: The NTL Institute for Behavioral Science announces it will build the world’s first university devoted entirely to applied behavioral science; the new US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) mandates safety education and training for workers
1971: Management Science publishes Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation, describing managerial work in terms of 10 roles and challenging Henri Fayol’s 1916 definition
1973: The International Federation of Training and Development Organizations is formed, with ASTD’s assistance, through a grant from the Agency for International Development; Malcolm Knowles’ The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species is published
1975: ASTD opens a branch office in Washington, DC
1978: ASTD hosts the 7th annual conference of the International Federation of Training and Development Organizations in Washington, DC
1978: ASTD membership reaches 15,323 with 110 chapters; it publishes Study of Professional Training and Development Roles and Competencies. Following ASTD’s efforts in Congress, the Employee Education Assistance IRS exemption is approved
1979: ASTD elects its first woman president, Jan Margolis

1980: Kenneth James Kukla becomes the 20,000th member of ASTD
1981: ASTD moves its headquarters from Madison, WI, to Washington, DC; Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson publish The One-Minute Manager
1982: Congress passes the Job Training Partnership Act to provide training and
employment assistance to disadvantaged and dislocated workers; Tom Peters and Robert Waterman publish In Search of Excellence
1983: ASTD implements a new governance structure, resulting in a new leadership direction for the Board of Directors and the creation of a Board of Governors to look at the future
1987: George S. Odiorne publishes The Human Side of Management; ASTD launches a new national conference on technical and skills training; the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award is established, along with a research function which receives a $750,000 grant from the US Department of Labor. Research grants to ASTD will reach almost $3 million by 1993. The Hudson Institute publishes Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century by William B. Johnson and Arnold H. Packer. Based on research funded by the US Department of Labor, the report spurs business and government leaders to reevaluate workforce-related policies
1988: ASTD membership reaches 24,500 with 150 chapters

1990: ASTD and the US Department of Labor publish The Learning Enterprise, co-authored by ASTD’s chief economist, Anthony P. Carnevale, and Leila J. Gainer, as well as the more comprehensive Training in America: The Organizational and Strategic Role of Training by Carnevale, Gainer, and Janice Villet. Both works establish the size and scope of the training enterprise in the US
1990: ASTD launches a new magazine, Technical & Skills Training; Peter M. Senge publishes The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization
1991: ASTD publishes America and the New Economy by Anthony P. Carnevale, which establishes the economic link between learning and performance. Training & Development Journal is retitled Training & Development, with circulation that tops 34,000 worldwide
1992: The ASTD Benchmarking Forum is established
1993: US president Bill Clinton creates the Office of Work-Based Learning within
the Department of Labor
1994: ASTD celebrates its 50th anniversary and holds its 50th annual and first international conference in Anaheim, CA. It launches ASTD Online, an electronic information access service. Trainers discuss the formation of a cyber-chapter of ASTD
1996: Training & Development celebrates 50 years of publication
1997: ASTD publishes its first annual research-based trends and state-of-the-industry reports